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Ngabe Amanzi Ethu Aphuma Kuphi?

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Inselele

Water Works commissionAbantu, njengezinye izinto eziphilayo, badinga amanzi ukuze baphile nokusimama. Kwesinye isikhathi abantu bahlala lapho kungekho khona imithombo emihle yamanzi eduzane. Lokhu kwenzeka kakhulu eWitwatersrand. Ekupheleni kweminyaka yoma 1800, abantu abaningi beza eWitwatersrand befuna igolide. Njengoba izimayini zaseJohannesburg zaziya ngokukhula, ayengekho amanzi enele endaweni ukuhlangabezana nezidingo zawo wonke umuntu. Imizamo ye-Johannesburg Water Works Company yokuhlangabezana nesidingo yaphazanyiswa yiSomiso esikhulazi ngo 1895. Ukuba nezikhalazo njalo ngamanzi kwaholela ekutheni kuqokwe ikhomishana ye-Water Works Commission ngo 1895 ukuhlola izindlela iJohannesburg engahlinzeka ngayo ngamanzi ekhwalithi enhle okuphuza.

I-geologist igama layo kwakungu-Dr Draper, yanikezwa umsebenzi yikhomishana wokuthi isize. Ngemuva kokusesha endaweni yaseZuurbekom, uDr Draper wathola lokho okwakudingwa yiwo wonke umuntu. Wabophela isakaduku lakhe egatsheni lesihlala sameva, lapho efika eJohannesburg watshela abekhomishni ye-Water Works Commission ukuthi “baye eZuurbekom, lapho enizothola khona isakaduku lami liboshelwe esihlaleni, fakani i-borehole khona nizothola amanzi, amanzi amaningi”. Ngonyaka ka 1896 kanye no 1897, abe-Water Works Commission baqala ukuthola imithombo yamanzi azinzile kwi-Zuurbekom Water Supply Companies. Ngo 1923 abe-Water Works Commission basungula iRand Water ukuze baqinisekise ukuthi iWitwatersrand ithola amanzi ahlanzekile, aphephile naphuzekayo.

Amanzi Angaphansi Komhlaba

Groud waterEkuqaleni abe-Rand Water basebenzisa amanzi angaphansi komhlaba abuya kwimithombe ye-Zuurbekom Welss engaseNtshonakala Rand. La manzi ayengawekhwalithi enhle kabi kangangokuba ayengadingile ukuhlanzekwiswa (purification).

Ukumunca Amanzi Emvelo

Lapho amanzi eZuurbekom Wells ayengasenele ukuthi akwazi ukuhlinzeka inani elalikhula labantu baseWitwatersrand, kwakhethwa umfula we-Vaal ongaseningizimu neJohannesburg njengomthombo omusha wamanzi. Ngo 1923 iRand Water yenza idamukazi kuMfula weVaal, ukwenza I-Vaal River Barrage Reservoir. Ngo 1938 kwakhiwa iDamu leVaal ngenhla kwe-Vaal River Barrage Reservoir okuyilona namanje elisengumthombo omkhulu wamanzi eRand Water. Imifula efana neVaal kanye neWilge ngokwemvelo ithelela eDamini leVaal Le mifula igeleza idlule emasimini ezolimo kanye nezindawo zasemakhaya lapho okunezimboni ezimbalwa khona. Lokhu kusho ukuthi amanzi eDamu leVaal ngawekhwalithi enhle kabi uma kuqhathaniswa namazinga amazwe omhlaba.

I-System Yomfula We-Vaal

I-system yomfula weVaal iqala empumalanga ne-highveld endaweni yase-Ermelo. Kukhona izikhala ezingajulile kakhulu kanye nezintatshana eziphansi ezenza isiponji semvelo lapho okuqoqana khona amanzi kuma-pan, ama-vlei kanye nemifudlana. Le mifudlana iyaxhumana, ebese lapho kuzaleka uMfula we-Vaal, ogelezela ngasentshonalanga ugudle njalo ngaphandle kwezimpophoma zesivinini wenabe ube ngumfula obanzi. KuBathwa, umfulwa babewubiza ngokuthi, yi-Gij’Gariep (“ukudungeka”) ukusukela kumbalwa wawo odungekile. Igama labaseYuropha elithi, Vaal, nalo lisho ukudungeka. AbeSuthu bona bawubiza iliGwa (“ukungabi nendlela ethile”) ngoba yokungambi ngendlela ethile ekugelezeni kwawo.

Umfula weVaal ugelezela ngakwintshonalanga ungenele kwiDamu le-Grootdraai. Leli damu ligcina umthamo wamanzi angu 350 million cubic metres, ukwendlaleka kwawo okungamaskwelekhilomitha angu 39 kanye nokujula okungamamitha angu 27. Lapho ugeleza uya kwiDamu leVaal, ungenelwa ngeminye imifula ejoyinana noMfula weVaal: 

  • I-Vaal encane iqala ethafeni eliseduzane ne-Ermelo;
  • umfula kwe-Klip uqala eduzane ne-Memel eFree State;
  • umfula we-Waterval uqala eSecunda.

IGrootdraai Dam

Grootdraai Dam

Umfula we-Wilge wawuhlangana noMfula weVaal ngaphambi kokuba kwakhiwe iDamu leVaal, manje usugelezela ngqo kwiDamu leVaal. Lo mfula uqala ethafeni eliseduzane nase-Harrismith. Ekugelezini kwawo uqonde kwiDamu leVaal, kukhona eminye imifula engenela kuwo, imifula efana ne-Nuwejaarspruit, i-Elands, kanye ne-Liebenbergsvlei.

Umfula weVaal ngomunye wemifula emikhulu eNingizimu Afrika, kodwa ukugeleza kwawo akufanana zonke izikhathi. Lokhu kusho ukuthi amadamu amakhulu kumele akhiwe ukuze agcine amanzi. Ezikhathini esezadlula, kwakhiwa amadanyama amancane ukunisela amapulazi. La madamu yiwo ayeyisisusa sama-barrage namadamu namuhla alawula umfula lapho okutholakala khona izimayini zegolide eWitwatersrand, kanye nezindawo zezimboni ezikuyo, kanti futhi nazo zincike kuwo.

Idamu leVaal lakhiwa ekuqaleni kweminyaka yoma 1930 laqedwa ngo 1938. Idamu lakhiwa njengomsebenzi weprojekthi ehlanganyelwe phakathi kweRand Water kanye noMnyango wezokunisela. Okwamanje iGauteng ithola amanzi awo evela eDanyini leVaal, manje ephethwe ngaboMnyango wezaManzi nezeMvelo. Idamu leVaal linendawo ekhongozela amanzi elingana amaskwekhilomitha angu 38 505 kanye nomthamo ongu 2575 million cubic metres kanti ngaphansi kwezimo ezijwayelekile kanti futhi ngaphandle kokuthola imingenelo yamanzi emikhulu, ingahlala iminyaka emibili. Leli damu linokwendlalekwa kwamaskwekhilimitha angu 321 kanye nokujula okungama 22,5mitha. Ngisho noma iDamu leVaal kungelesine ngobukhulukazi kumadamu aseNingizimu Afrika ngomthamo walo wokugcina amanzi, ngaphandle kokungabaza, liyidamu elibaluleke kakhulu kunawo onke ngenxa yendima eliyidlalayo lokuba ngumphakeli wamanzi kwindawo eyinhliziyo yomnotho waseNingizimu Afrika.

IVaal Dam

Vaal dam in South Africa

Okwamanje ubonda lweDamu le-Vaal lwenyuswe kabili. Ngeminyaka yoma 1950 ubonda lwaluphakanyiswe ngo 6,1 wamamitha, okwakwenza ukuthi ligcine umthamo wamanzi ongu 2188 million cubic meters. Kodwa isidingo esihlala sikhula njalo samanzi, senza ukuthi kufaneleke ukuthi liphinde linyuswe futhi ngo 1985. Ubonda lwanyuswa ngamanye amamitha angu 3.5, lokhu okwenyuse ivolumu yomthamo wedamu ngo 2535 million cubic meteres. Kanti amamitha asele angu 1.95metres asetshenziselwa ukudlulisa amanzi ezikhukhula okusho ukuthi lilangana ama 662 million cubic meters.

IVaal River Barrage Reservoir
Vaal River Barrage ReservoirI-Barrage Reservoir yoMfula weVaal eyenziwa yiqoqo lamasango azungeze uMfula weVaal, yakhiwa ngabeRand Water ezansi neDamu leVaal ngo 1923. I-reservoir ingamakhilomitha angu 64 kanti inomthamo wokugcina amanzi ongu 63million litres, ukwendlaleka kwawo ngu 168,35 skwekhilomitha kanti inesilinganiso sokujula esingu 4,5metres. Imifula, isibonelo, umfula weSuikerbosrant, iKlip kanye neRietspruit ewumngenela kwiVaal River Barrage Reservoir igelezela isuka endaweni yezimboni kakhulu efana neJohannesburg, iVereeniging kanye neSasolburg. Le reservoir isetshenziswa ukunethezeka, efana nokujaha ngezikebhe, ukwenza i-skiing, ukubhukuda kanti futhi inezindawo eziningi zamaholidi ezakhiwe ogwini lwayo. Le reservoir isetshenziswa ukunethezeka (recreational), efana nokujaha ngezikebhe (boating), ukwenza i-skiing, ukudweba izinhlanzi, ukubhukuda kanti futhi inezindawo eziningi zamaholidi ezakhiwe ogwini lwayo.

Okubaluleke kakhulu ngokugcina le mithombo yamanzi ikwisimo esihle, ukuphatha kahle. Lokhu kubandakanya ukuqapha kwayo yonke imifula namadamu, okuwumsebenzi odinga ukuthi njalo kuthathwe amasampuli ukuhlolwa nokuhlaziywa ezindaweni ezingu 140 zeRand Water ezikhongozela amanzi, lokhu kwenziwa ngabe sevisi ye-Rand Water’s Quality Specialist Services Department. Okubandakanywa ekuhloleni nokuqapha umsebenzi wokuphatha imithombo yamanazi ethu, ukuqapha amanzi angcolile abuya ezimbonini nakomasipala.

Water management diagram

Lapho amanzi asuka kwi-Vaal River Barrage Reservoir, ehla njalo ageleze adlule eParys, eFree State, ebese ehlela eDanyini leBloemhof. Leli damu linokwenaba okungu 233 skwekhilomitha, kanti nobunzulu obungamamitha angu 18, kanye nomthamo wokugcina amanzi ongu 1,26 billion cubic meteres. E-Christiana kukhona amakhanali (imisele) eminingi ehambisa amanzi kumapulazi angu 1200 kwenye yezikimu ze-irrigation ezinkulukazi kwihemisfeya eseningizimu. EDouglas, uMfula weVaal uhlangabezana noMfula we-Orange, ongamakhilomitha angu 1200 ukusuka kumthombo wawo. Umfula we-Orange ugeleza njalo uze uyothela olwandle lwe-Atlantic Ocean e-Alexander Bay.

Izikimu Zokudlulisa

Izikimu zokudlulisa amanzi ezimbili zakhelwe ukuthutha amanzi ukusuka kwiindawo zokukhongozela amanzi ukuye ezindaweni ezikhongozela amanzi eDanyii leVaal ukuze zihlangabezane nezidingo zamanzi ezikhulayo eWitwatersrand. Lezi zikimu zibandakanya okulandelayo:

1. Uthukela-Isikimu sokudlulisa amanzi se-Vaal

Thukela-Vaal Water Transfer Scheme

 

Lesi sikimu sitholakala eDrakensberg kanti saqedwa ngo 1974. Umfula woThukela uqala eMont Aux Sources eDrakensberg, kanti ugeleza njalo udlule eKwaZulu-Natali uze uyothela e-Indian Ocean. Ngokwakhiwa kwesikimu se-Thukela-Vaal Water Transfer Scheme, kudluliswa umthamo othize wamanzi ukusukela kumfula woThukela, lokhu kwenziwa ngamakhanali (imisele), amapayipi kanye namadamu ukuya kwinqubo yoMfula weVaal.

Umfula woThukela ugelezela eDanyini le-Woodstock (Indawo yokunaba kwawo: ngamaskwekhilomitha angu 29; Imlinganiselo wobunzulu bawo: ngamamitha angu 40; Uphelele umthamo wokugcina amanzi: ngama 380 million cubic metres) ebese udlulela e-Driel Barrage ngezansi. Inani elithile lomthamo wamanzi upompiwa usuka e-Driel Barrage uya kwikhanali egelezelela ukuya kwiDamu le-Kilburn. Amanzi asuka kwiDamu leKliburn apompiwa ngaphansi komhlaba adlule eDrakensberg (500m) ukuya eDanyini leDriekloof. 

Lesi sigaba sesikimu sisetshenziswa ukukhiqiza ugesi (i-elektrisithi) njengoba isiteshi samanzi sokwenza ugesi sakhiwe ezintabeni zeDrakensberg. Lesi siteshi samandla kagesi saziwa njenge-Drakensberg Pumped Storage Scheme, siphethwe yi-Eskom kanti ugesi okhiqizwa lapha ufakelwa kwigrid ye-elektrisithi kazwelonke. Ngesikhathi zokusetshenziswa kakhulu (ekuseni nantambama) lapho i-elektrisithi idingeka kakhulu, amanzi ayehla ukusuka eDanyini leDriekloof ukudlula ngaphansi ukuhamba ngama-hydroelectric turbines ukuya kwiDamu leKlipburn. Ezikhatini zokungasetshenziswa kakhulu, amanzi apompiwa ukusuka eDanyini leKlipburn ukuya eDanyini leDriekloof. Lapho iDamu leDriekloof ligcwele, amanzi ageleza ukusuka phezu kwe-weir ukuya kwiDamu le-Sterkfontein, lapho afika agcinwe khona. Idamu leSterkfontein linokwenaba obungamaskwekhilomitha angu 67, kanti ubunzulu ngamamitha angu 93 ebese libanomthamo ongu 2,62 billion cubic meteres.

Lapho amanzi edingeka kuMfula weVaal, amanzi akhululwa esuka eDanyini leSterkfontein ukuya eMfulweni weNuwejaarspruit, ebese egelezela kuMfula weWilge, aqhubekele eDanyini leVaal. Njengengxenye yamaplani angekusasa okuphathwa kwamanzi eNingizimu Afrika, kuhlelwe ukwakhiwa kwamanye amadamu amabili esikimu, okusho iDamu leMielietuin (30 million cubic metres) kuMfula weBushman kanye neDamu leJana (1500 million cubic metres) kuMfula woThukela, oyoba namapayiphi angamakhilomitha angu 121 ukuthela kwizikimu ezikhona. 

2. I-Lesotho Highlands Water Project

Lesi sikimu sitholakala ezintabeni zeLesotho. Izintaba zeLesotho zithola amanzi amaningi, ngezimvula kanye neqhwa. I-phase 1A yeprojekthi ibandakanya idamu leDatse eMfulweni weMalibamatso.

Lesotho Highlands Water Project

IKatse Dam                   IMuela Dam                   IAsh River Outfall

Katse Dam, Muela Dam, Ash River Outfall 

Umfula weMalibamatso ugelezela eMfuleni weSenqu uqhubeke njalo uye emfulweni we-Orange. Amanzi eDamu leKatse (Ukwenaba kwawo: ngamaskwekhilomitha angu 37.6; Umlinganiselo wobunzulu bawo: ngamamitha angu 180; Uphelele umthamo wokugcina amanzi: 1,95 billion cubic metres) adonswa ngethaneli adlule kwi-tower ewamukelayo etholakala ngenhla kobonda lweDamu leKatse. Amanzi ahamba ngamapayipi angaphansi komhlaba ibanga elingama 44,75 khilomitha ubude, kanti adlule eMuela Hydroelectric Power Station, abese eya eDamu leMuela. Lapha amanzi ahamba ngaphansi ngama-hydroelectric turbines ukuyokhiqizela iLesotho ugesi. Amanzi avela eDanyini leMuela ahamba amakhilomitha angu 33,27 ubude ngamapayipi ngaphansi komhlaba aze agcine esethelela kuMfula we-Ash eduzane ne-Clarens eNingizimu Afrika. Umfula we-Ash ugelezela eDanyini le-Saulspoort. Ngemuva kwalokho, amanzi agelezela kuMfula weLiebenbergvlei, uMfula we-Wilge aze ayofika eDanyini leVaal. I-phase 1A yale projekthi iqedwa ngo 1998. Kanti i-phase 1B kube ukwakhiwa kweDam leMohale kanye namathaneli ahamba ngaphansi komhlaba aze ayongena eDanyini leKatse. I-phase 2 ibandakanya ukwakhiwa kwamanye amadamu angu 3 eLesotho, amagama awo nguPolihali Dam, iDamu leTaung kanye neDamu leLebelo azoba namapayipi ahamba ngaphansi komhlaba eyothelela emadanyini akhona manje. Amaplani eDamu lePolihali aseqalile kanti ukwakhiwa kuzoqala ngo 2011 kuyoqedwa ngo 2019 ngenani elilinganiselwa kwi R7.3bhiliyoni. 

Ukutholakala Kwamanzi Okuphuza

IRand Water ithola amanzi ayo ukusuka eDanyini leVaal. La manzi ahanjiswa ngamakhanali (imisele) nangamapayipi ukusuka eziteshini zokuhlanzekisa zeRand Water eziseVereeniging. Lapha amanzi afike ahlanzekiswe nokufakelwa izibulalamagciwane ukuze abe sezingeni lokulungela ukuphuzwa ngabantu. Amanzi ahambelana nezidingo ze-South African National Standard for Drinking Water (i-SANS 241) kanye nemikhombandlela ebekwe yi-World Health Organisation (WHO) . Amanzi ahlanzekile apontshwa ngamapayipi ahamba ngaphansi komhlaba ukusuka eziteshini zokuwahlanzekisa ukudlula eziteshini zokumpompa ebese egcinwa kuma-reservoir avaliwe ngemuva kwalokho aphakelwe ngokuhanjiswa ngamapayipi, ngokusebenzisa amandla e-gravity. I-Rand Water ithengisela ohulumeni bezindawo amanzi, kanye nakwezinye izimayini kanye namafektri endaweni engamaskwekhilomitha angu 18 000. Ohulumeni bezindawo basaplaya abantu abangu 11miliyoni ngamanzi emakhaya, ezikoleni nakumabhizinisi eGauteng kanye nakwizingxenye zamaprovinsi eMpumalanga, iNorth West, iFree State kanye neLimpopo, ezithenga amanzi ahlanzekile kwiRand Water. Lokhu kuyinani lika 45% labantu baseNingizimu Afrika kanye no 60% wezomnotho.

Water cycle

Amanzi Angcolile

Abantu basebenzisa amanzi okuphuza ukuwasha, ukupheka, ukwenza izingadi, ukukhiqiza, ukuphuza kanye nokugwedla amathoyilethi. Amanzi angcolile ahamba ngama-drain kanye namathoyilethi abizwa ngokuthi amanzi angcolile (sewage). Ezindaweni ezine-system ye-sewage ehanjiswa ngamanzi, amanzi angcolile ahanjiswa ngamapayipi e-sewerage ukusiwa ezindaweni lapho afika ahlanzwe khona. Lapha amanzi angcolile ayahlanja abulawe amagciwane ukufinyelela ezingeni elibekwe ngaboMnyango wezaManzi nezeMvelo, ngaphambi kokuba achithelwe emfuleni oseduzane. Amanzi abengcolile ahlanjiwe (treated wastwater) ukusuka kwinyakatho yeWitwatersrand agelezela kwimifula ekhiphela amanzi kwiMifula yeCrocodile kanye neLimpopo aze ayothela e-Indian Ocean. Amanzi ahlanjiwe ukusuka eningizimu agelezela emifuleni athululela kwi-Vaal River Barrage Reservoir (ngezansi neDamu leVaal), ebese ageleze njalo aye emfuleni we-Orange, aqhubeke njalo ehlele olwandle lwe-Atlantic Ocean. Ngale ndlela amanzi abuyiselwa kwisayikile yawo yemvelo.

Water flow chart


Ngabe amanzi amahhala?

Amanzi atholakala mahhala ukusuka kwisayikile yamanzi emvelo, kodwa ngoba amanzi eNingizimu Afrika angumthombo oyindlala, kanti futhi imithombo yethu ivamise ukungcoliswa (polluted resources), kudingeke kufakelwe ama-system amaningi ukuze sikwazi ukuthola amanzi ahlanzekisiwe nanempilo, emadanyini, kwizikimu zokudlulisa amanzi, iziteshi zokuhlanzekisa amanzi, kuma-reservoir, amapayipi nokunye. Lama system abiza imali eningi, kungakho kumele sikhokhele amanzi. Okwamanje ukhokha phakathi kuka R4 & R16 ngamalitha angu 1000 amanzi ngosuku empompi, kanti leli nani liphansi kakhulu uma kuqhathaniswa negrosa yakho. Uma siqhubeka nokusebenzisa amanzi ngokuwaxhaphaza kanye nokungcolisa amanzi, lezi zindleko zizonyuka kakhulu. Kuzomele kwakhiwe ezinye izikimu zokudlulisa amanzi, kanti futhi kuzomele kufakelwe nezindleko zetheknoloji kumaproesesi okuhlanzekisa eRand Water noma ukwakha ezinye izingqalazizinda (ama-infrastructure), ukuhlanzekisa amanzi angcolisiwe. Kungakho kubalulekile kubantu ukushintsha imiqondo nendlela abenza ngayo izinto maqondana namanzi, amanzi kumele bawaphathe ngenhlonipho kanye nokuwasebenzisa NGOBUKHALIPHI. Kubalulekile ukuthi sonke sibe NOBUKHALIPHI NGAMANZI! 

Ukuba “Nobukhaliphi Ngamanzi” kusho ukuthi umuntu ozokwenza okulandelayo:

  • uzoba NENHLONIPHO enkulu yamanzi nazo zonke izinto eziphilayo;
  • uzosebenzisa amanci ngokucophelela ANGAWAXHAPHAZI kabi;
  • angaNGCOLISI kabi imifula ngezinto eziwuketshezi neziyigaxa ezifana nendle (solid waste);
  • AKHOKHELE amasevisi amanzi;
  • athathe ISINYATHELO sokuxazulula izinkinga zamanzi;
  • ONGE amanzi, kanti ngokwenza njalo uzobe WONGA nesimo semvelo.

See also:

What Does it Mean to be Water Wise?
Are you Water Wise? Take our fun Quiz.
Water Situation in South Africa