Email This Print this page More...

Na metsi a rona a tswa hokae?

 languages This article is available in: English | Afrikaans | Sotho | Zulu

Download this page in PDF format (468 KB).

Phephetso

Water Works commissionBatho, jwalo ka dintho tse phelang, ba hloka metsi bakeng sa ho phela le ho atleha. Ka dinako tse ding batho ba dula dibakeng tse ding moo ho se nang mehlodi e metle ya metsi haufi le bona. Hona ho bonahala haholo ka sebaka sa Witwatersrand. Mafelong a sentjhuri ya bo-19, Batho ba bangata ba ile ba tla Witwatersrand ba tlilo batla kgauta. Jwalo ka ha toropo ya morafo ya Johannesburg e ntse e hola, ho ile ha ba le kgaello ya metsi sebakeng seo bakeng sa ho fihlela ditlhoko tsa batho bohle. Ho ile ha etswa maiteko ke Johannesburg Water Works Company ho fihlela ditseko tsa metsi mme hoo ho ile hwa sitiswa ke Komello e Kgolo ya ka selemo sa 1895. Ditletlebo tsa kgafetsa tsa metsi di ile tsa etsa hore ho be ho kgethwe Khomishene ya metsi e neng e tsejwa ka Water Works Commission ka 1895 hore e lekole ditsela tseo Johannesburg e ka fuwang metsi a boleng bo botle a ho nwa.

Geologist e nngwe, eo lebitso la yona e leng Dr Draper, e ile ya fuwa mosebetsi wa ho thusa tabeng ena. Ka mora ho fuputsa mane polasing ya Zuurbekom, Dr Draper a fumana se neng se hlokwa ke bohle. O ile a bofella sakatuku ya hae lekaleng la sefate sa meutlwa a kgutlela Johannesburg, moo e itseng ha a fihla, a bolella ba Water Works Commission a re “e yang Zuurbekom, moo le tla fumana sakatuku ya e bofelletswe sefateng, le fihle le epe mokoti moo le tla fumana metsi, a mangata haholo.” Ka 1896 le 1897 Water Works Commission e ile ya fumana phepelo e nang le botsitso ya metsi ho tswa didibeng tsa Zuurbekom Water Supply Companies. Ka 1903 Water Works Commission ya theha Rand Water bakeng sa ho etsa bonnete ba hore Witwatersrand e fumana metsi a lekaneng a hlwekileng, a bolokehileng bakeng sa ho nowa.

Metsi A Ka Tlasa Mobu

Groud waterQalong Rand Water e ne e sebedisa metsi a ka tlasa mobu ho tswa Didibeng tsa Zuurbekom tse West Rand. Metsi ana e ne e le a boleng bo hodimo haholo hoo a neng a sa hloke ho hlwekiswa.

Ho Itsamaela Ha Metsi Ka Tlhaho

Ha metsi a tswang Didibeng tsa Zuurbekom a ne a se a sa lekana bakeng sa palo ya baahi e eneng e ntse e hola ya Witwatersrand, ho ile ha kgethwa Noka ya Vaal e ka borwa ho Johannesburg hore e be yona mohlodi o motjha wa metsi. Ka 1923 Rand Water ya etsa letamo Nokeng ya Vaal ho bopa Vaal River Barrage Reservoir. Ka 1938 ha hahuwa Letamo la Vaal ho nyolosa le Vaal River Barrage Reservoir, leo jwale e leng lona mohlodi o moholo wa metsi a Rand Water. Dinoka tse jwalo ka ya Vaal le ya Wilge di phalla ka tlhaho ho kena Letamong la Vaal. Dinoka tsena di phallela mobung wa temo le dibakeng tsa bodulo tsa mahaeng tse nang le diindasteri tse mmalwa feela. Hona ho bolela hore metsi a Letamong la Vaal ke aboleng bo hodimo ka ho ya ka maemo a matjhabeng.

Mokgwatshebetso Wa Noka Ya Vaal

Mokgwatshebetso wa Noka ya Vaal o qala ka eastern highveld plains, tikolohong ya Ermelo. Mekoti e tebileng hanyenyane le dithabana di bopa sepontjhe sa tlhaho seo ho sona metsi a bokellanang ho di-pan, di-vlei le diphuleng. Diphula tsena di a kopana e be di bopa Noka ya Vaal, e phallelang ka Bophirima tseleng e telele, moo ho se nang diphororo tse potlakileng, e be di kena ka nokeng e kgolo. Ho Barwa, noka e ne e tsejwa ka Gij’Gariep (“bosehla”) ho tswa mmaleng wa yona o seretse. Lebitso la seYuropa, Vaal, hape le bolela bosehla. Basotho ba e bitsa Lekwa (“ho sa tshepahaleng”) ka baka la ho fapafapana ha yona ha e phalla.

Jwalo ka ha Noka ya Vaal e phallela ka bophirima ho Letamo la Grootdraai. Letamo lena le na le paloyohle ya mothamo wa 350 million cubic meters, sebaka sa tikoloho e etsang 39 square kilometers le botebo ba palohare ya dimetara tse 27. Tseleng ya yona e yang Letamong la Vaal ho na le dinoka tse mmalwa tse kenang Nokeng ya Vaal: 

  • Little Vaal e qalang sebakeng se tebileng se haufi le Ermelo;
  • Noka ya Klip e qalang haufi le Memel mane Freistata;
  • Noka ya Waterval e qalang mane Secunda.

Letamo la Grootdraai

Grootdraai Dam

Noka ya Wilge e neng e kopana le Noka ya Vaal pele ho Letamo la Vaal e ile ya hahuwa empa jwale e phallela ka ho otloloha Letamong la Vaal. Noka ena e qala sebakeng se tebileng se haufi le Harrismith. Tseleng ya yona ho ya Letamong la Vaal ho na le dinoka tse ngata tse phallelang ho yona, mohlala, dinoka tsa Nuwejaarspruit, Elands, le Liebenbergsvlei.

Noka ya Vaal ke e nngwe ya dinoka tse kgolo mona Afrika Borwa empa phallo ya metsi a yona ha e tshwane. Hona ho bolela hore ho tshwanetswe hore ho hahuwe matamo a maholo bakeng sa ho boloka metsi. Pejana ho ne ho hahuwa matamo a manyenyane bakeng sa ho nosetsa masimo. Matamo ana e ne e le ona a ka pelepele ho dibaraje tse kgolo le matamo ao kajeno a laolang noka eo masimo a maholo a Witwatersrand le diindasteri tse a potapotileng a tshepetseng ho ona.

Letamo la Vaal le hahuwe mathwasong a dilemo tsa mashome a mararo mme la qetwa ka 1938. Letamo le hahuwe jwalo ka projeke e kopanetsweng pakeng tsa Rand Water le leo e neng e le Lefapha la ho Nosetsa. Ha jwale Gauteng e fumana metsi a yona ho tswa Letamong la Vaal leo kajeno le laolwang ke Lefapha la Ditaba tsa Metsi le Tikoloho. Letamo la Vaal le na le sebaka sa kgakeletso se etsang 38 505 square kilometers le mothamo o tshwarang 2575 million cubic meters ya metsi ao, tlasa mabaka a tlwaelehileng, le ntle le phallo e kgolo, a ka nkang dilemo tse 2. Letamo lena le na le sebaka se etsang 321 square kilometers le palohare ya botebo ba dimetara tse 22,5. Le ha Letamo la Vaal e le la bone ka boholo mona Afrika Borwa ka ho ya bokgoni ba mothamo wa lona, mme ha ho na pelaelo hore ke lona letamo la bohlokwa haholo ha ho shejwa seabo sa lona sa phepelo ya motheo ya metsi ditheong tsa moruo wa Afrika Borwa.

Letamo la Vaal

Vaal dam in South Africa

Letamo la Vaal la ha jwale le se le atolositswe habedi. Mathwasong a dilemo tsa bomashome a mahlano lebota la lona le ile la phahamiswa ho ba dimetara tse 6.1 mme hoo ha etsa hore le kgone ho boloka 2188 million cubic meters ya metsi. Tseko e neng e ntse e tswela pele ya metsi e ile ya etsa hore ho be le tlhokeho ya ho le phahamisa hape ka 1985. Lebota le ile la phahamiswa ka dimetara tse 3,5 e nngwe hape e ileng ya eketsa volume ya letamo ho ya ho 2536 million cubic meters. Dimetara tse 1.95 tse setseng di sebediswa bakeng sa ho boloka metsi sa nakwana e leng e ka etsang 662 million cubic meters.

Vaal River Barrage Reservoir
Vaal River Barrage ReservoirVaal River Barrage Reservoir, e bopilweng ka sehlopha sa diheke ho kgaola le Noka ya Vaal, e ile ya hahuwa ke Rand Water ho theosa Letamo la Vaal, ka 1923. Sebaka sena sa polokelo se bolelele ba dikilometara tse 64 mme se na le paloyohle ya mothamo wa ho boloka metsi sa dilitara tse 63 miliyone, le sebaka sa boholo bo etsang 168,35 square kilometers athe e na le palohare ya botebo bo etsang dimetara tse 4,5. Dinoka tsena, ke hore, Suikerbosrant, Klip, le Rietspruit, tse fepelang Vaal River Barrage Reservoir di phalla ho tswa dibakeng tsa diindasteri le tse tletseng batho haholo tse jwalo ka tsa Johannesburg, Vereeniging le Sasolburg. Polokelo ena e ne e sebediswa bakeng sa ho fepela metsi sebakeng sa Witwatersrand empa ha ho sa etswa jwalo hobane jwale boleng ba metsi a yona bo theohile haholo ka baka la tshilafatso. Polokelo ena e sebedisetswa diketsahalo tse ngata tsa boiketlo, tse jwalo ka boating, skiing, ho tshwasa ditlhapi, ho sesa mme ho se ho ena le dibaka tse ngata tsa boithabiso ka matsatsi a phomolo mabopong a sona.

Ntho ya bohlokwa ya ho boloka mehlodi ya rona ya metsi e le boemong bo botle ke ho ba le taolo e sebetsang hantle haholo. Hona ho kenyeletsa ho lebela dinoka tsa rona tsohle tse kgolo le matamo, e leng mosebetsi o kenyelletsang ho nka mehlala le ho hlopholla kgafetsa ho tswa dintlheng tse ka hodimo ho 140 tsa sebaka sa kgakeletso sa Rand Water, e leng ntho e entsweng ke Rand Water’s Water Quality Specialist Services Department. Ho kenyelleditsweng taolong ya mehlodi ya rona ya metsi ke mokgwa wa ho lebela metsi a dikgwerekgwere a tswang diindastering le ho bomasepala.
 

Water management diagram

Ha metsi a tswa Vaal River Barrage Reservoir ona a theosa jwalo a feta Parys, mane Freistata, e be a ya Letamo la Bloemhof. Letamo lena le na le sebaka sa tikoloho e etsang 233 square kilometers, palohare ya botebo bo etsang dimetara tse 18 le palohare ya mothamo o bolokang metsi o etsang 1,26 billion cubic meters. Mane Christiana ho na le letoto le rarahaneng la dikanale tse nkang metsi dia romele masimong a 1200 ho se seng sa dikema tsa kgolohadi ho nosetsa tse hemisfereng e ka borwa. Mane Douglas Noka ya Vaal e kopana le Noka ya Orange, dikilometara tse 1200 ho tloha mohloding wa yona. Orange River, e sibollang mane Lesotho, e be e tswela pele ka bophirima e be qetellong e phallela Atlantic Ocean mane Alexander Bay.

Dikema Tsa Ho Transfera

Dikema tse pedi tsa ho transfera metsi di hahuwe hore di tsamaise metsi ho tloha dikgakeletsong tse ding ho ya kgakeletsong ya Letamo la Vaal bakeng sa ho fihlela ditseko tse holang tsa metsi mona Witwatersrand. Dikema tsena di kenyelletsa ho latelang:

1. Sekema sa ho Transefera Metsi sa Tugela-Vaal

Thukela-Vaal Water Transfer Scheme

 

Sekema sena se fumanwa mane Drakensberg mme se phethilwe ka 1974. Noka ya Thukela e qala Mont Aux Sources, mane Drakensberg, e be e phalli ka tlhaho ho haola le KwaZulu-Natal e ilo tsholohela Indian Ocean. Ka kaho ya Sekema sa ho Transfera Metsi sa Thukela-Vaal, palo e itseng ya metsi ho tswa Nokeng ya Thukela River e fetiswa ka dikanale, dipeipi le matamo ho ya ho mokgwatshebetso wa Noka ya Vaal.

Noka ya Thukela e phallela Letamong la Woodstock (Ka Sebaka sa Tikoloho e etsang: 29 square kilometers; ka Palohare ya Botebo ba: dimetara tse 40; le Paloyohle ya Mothamo wa ho Boloka o etsang: 380 million cubic meters) e be e phallela Driel Barrage ho theosa jwalo ho ya tlase. Palo e itseng ya metsi e pompuwa ho tswa Driel Barrage ka kanale e be e phalella Letamong la Kilburn. Metsi a tswang Letamong la Kilburn e be a pompuwa ka tlasa mobu, ho feta Drakensberg (500m), ho leba Letamong la Driekloof. 

Karolo ena e sebedisetswa ho hlahisa motlakase jwalo ka ha ho hahuwe seteishene sa matla sa hydroelectric dithabeng tsa Drakensberg. Seteishene sena sa matla, se tsejwang ka Drakensberg Pumped Storage Scheme, se laolwa ke Eskom mme motlakase o hlahiswang moo o fepelwa national electricity grid. Dinakong tseo ho sebetswang haholo ka tsona (hosing le mantsiboya) moo ho hlokwa motlakase haholo, metsi a theoha Letamong la Driekloof, ka di-hydroelectric turbine tse tsamayang ka tlasa mobus, ho fetela Letamong la Kilburn. Ka dinako tseo ho thotseng ka tsona metsi a pompuwa hape ho kgutlela Letamong la Kilburn le ho ya Letamong la Driekloof. Ha Letamo la Driekloof le tletse metsi a phallela Letamong la Sterkfontein, moo a bolokwang teng. Letamo la Sterkfontein le na le sebaka sa tikoloho e etsang 67 square kilometers, palohare ya botebo bo etsang dimetara tse 93, le paloyohle ya mothamo wa ho boloka metsi wa 2,62 billion cubic meters.

Ha ho hlokeha metsi bakeng sa mokgwatshebetso wa Noka ya Vaal, metsi a lokollwa ho tswa Letamong la Sterkfontein ho ya Nokeng ya Nuwejaarspruit, e be a phallela Nokeng ya Wilge a fetele Letamong la Vaal. Jwalo ka karolo ya merero ya nakong e tlang ya taolo ya metsi mona Afrika Borwa ho rerilwe hore ho hahuwe matamo a mang a mabedi bakeng sa sekema sena, e leng Letamo la Mielietuin (30 million cubic meters) le Nokeng ya Bushman le Letamong la Jana (1500 million cubic meters) le Nokeng ya Thukela le tla ba le dipeipi tse etsang 121 km le tla fepela sekema se ntseng se le teng.

2. Lesotho Highlands Water Project

Sekema sena se fumanwa dithabeng tsa Lesotho. Dithaba tsa Lesotho di fumana metsi a mangata haholo, ka mokgwa wa pula le lehlwa. Mokgahlelo wa 1A wa projeke o ne o kenyelletsa Letamo la Katse le Nokeng ya Malibamatso.

Lesotho Highlands Water Project

Letamo la Katse               Letamo la Muela              Tsheleho ya metsi ka hara
                                                               noka ya Ash ka peipe

Katse Dam, Muela Dam, Ash River Outfall

Noka ya Malibamatso ka tlhaho e phallela Nokeng ya Senqu e be e kena Orange River. Metsi a tswang Letamong la Katse (Sebaka sa Tikoloho e etsang: 37,6 square kilometers; ka Palohare ya Botebo ba: dimetara tse 180; le Paloyohle ya Mothamo wa ho Boloka o etsang: 1,95 billion cubic meters) a hulwa ho ya thaneleng e bophahamong ba lebota la Letamo la Kate. Metsi a tsamaya peipieng e ka tlase ho mobu, ya bolelele ba dikilometara tse 44,75, ho feta Muela Hydroelectric Power Station a ilo wela Letamong la Muela. Mona metsi a tsamaya ka ho otloloha ka di-hydroelectric turbine tse ka tlase ho hlahisa motlakase bakeng san naha ya Lesotho. Metsi a tswang Letamong la Muela a tsamaya bolelele ba dikilometara tse 33,27 ka peipi ya ka tlase e be qetellong a phalella Nokeng ya Ash, haufi le Clarens mona Afrika Borwa. Noka ya Ash e be e phallela Letamong la Saulspoort. Ka mora moo metsi a phallela Nokeng ya Liebenbergsvlei, Nokeng ya Wilge e be a fetela Letamong la Vaal. Mokgahlelo wa 1A wa projeke o ile wa phethwa ka 1998. Mokgahlelong wa 1B ho ile ha hahuwa Letamo la Mohale ekasitana le thanele ya ho transfera e ka tlasa mobu e lebang Letamong la Katse. Mokgahlelo wa 2 o kenyelletsa ho hahuwa ha matamoa mang a 3 mane Lesotho, e leng Letamo la Polihali, Letamo la Taung le Letamo la Lebelo, moo ho tla ba le dipeipi tsa ka tlasa mobu tse fepelang matamo a seng a ntse a le teng. Ho ntse ho tshwarahanwe le merero ya ho hahuwa ha Letamo la Polihali mme kaho e tla qala ka 2011 ho qetwe ka 2019, ka ditjeo tse lekanyetswang ho R7.3 billion. 

Phepelo Ya Metsi A Nowang

Rand Water e hula metsi a hlwekisitsweng ho tswa Letamong la Vaal. Metsi ana a tsamaiswa ka dikanale le dipeipi ho ya diteisheneng tsa tlhwekiso ya metsi tsa Rand Water tse Vereeniging. Mona metsi a hlwekiswa le ho lokiswa ho ba boemong bo tshwanetseng bakeng sa ho nowa ke batho. Metsi a tsamaelana le ditlhoko tsa South African National Standard for Drinking Water (SANS 241) le ditataiso tsa World Health Organisation (WHO). Metsi a hlwekisitsweng a pompuwa ka dipeipi tse ka tlasa mobu ho tswa diteisheneng tsa tlhwekiso, di feta diteisheneng tse mmalwa tsa ho pompa, a bolokwe dibakeng tsa polokelo tse kwetsweng e be a ajwa ka dipeipi tsa ka tlasa mobu, ho sebediswa mokgwa wa ho hulela tlase. Rand Water e rekisetsa makgotla a metse metsi, le merafo e meng mmoho le difektheri, tikolohong e ka etsang 18 000 square kilometers. Makgotla a metse e be a fepela batho ba ka bang 11 million malapeng a bona, dikolong le dikgwebong mona Gauteng le dikarolong tsa Diprovinse tsa Mpumalanga, Leboya Bophirima, Freistata le Limpopo ka metsi a hlwekileng ao a a rekang ho tswa ho Rand Water. Hona ho etsa 45% ya palo ya baahi ba Afrika Borwa le 60% ya moruo wa naha.

Water cycle

Dikgwerekgwere

Batho ba sebedisa metsia ho nwa bakeng sa ho hlatswa, ho pheha, ho nosetsa ditshimong, tlhahiso, ho nwa le ho tsamaisa matlwana. Metsi a ditshila e tsamayang ka foro le matlwaneng a bitswa dikgwerekgwere (metsi a swiritjhi). Dibakeng tse nang le mekgwatshebetso ya swiritjhi e tsamaisang metsi, dikgwerekgwere tsena di tsamaiswa ka dipeipi tsa swiritjhi ho ya dibakeng tseo metsi a dikgwerekgwere a tla hlwekiswa teng. Mona ke moo dmetsi ana a dikgwerekgwere a hlwekiswang ho ba boemong bo itseng boa mohelehileng bo behilweng ke Lefapha la Ditaba Metsi le Tikoloho, pele a ka lokollwa ho ya nokeng e haufi. Metsi a dikgwerekgwere a hlwekisitsweng ho tsw aka lehlakoreng le ka leboya ho Witwatersrand a phallela dinokeng tse welang Nokeng ya Crocodile le Noka ya Limpopo e be a fetela Indian Ocean. Metsi a dikgwerekgwere a hlwekisitsweng ka lehlakoreng la ka borwa ona a phallela dinokeng tse welang Vaal River Barrage Reservoir (ho theosa le Letamo la Vaal), e be a fetela Orange River (Nokeng ya Senqu) le Atlantic Ocean. Ka tsela ena, metsi a kgutlela saekeleng ya ona ya tlhaho ya metsi.

Water flow chart


Na metsi ke mahala?

Metsi a fumaneha mahala ho tswa saekeleng ya metsi ya tlhaho empa ka baka la hobane mona Afrika Borwa ona ke mohlodi o haellang mme hangata o silafatswang, ho lokelw ahore ho kengwe mekgwatshebetso e mengata e le hore re tle re fumane metsi a lekaneng a hlwekileng hape a loketsweng ho nowa, ke hore matamo, dikema tsa ditransfere, diteishene tsa tlhwekiso ya metsi, dibaka tsa poloko ya metsi, dipeipie, jj. Mekgwa ena ya tshebetso e bitsa tjhelete e ngata haholo mm eke ka hoo re lokelang ho lefela metsi. Ha jwale o lefa pakeng tsa R4 le R16 bakeng sa dilitara tse 1000 tsa metsi a pompong, e leng tjhelete e tlase haholo ha e bapiswa le eo o rekang korosari ya hao ka yona. Ha re ntse re tswela pele ho senya le ho silafatsa metsi moo ditjeo di tla eketseha le ho feta. Ho tla tshwanelwa hore ho hahuwe matamo le dikema tsa ho tranfera metsi, ho be ho kengwe thekenoloji e nngwe tshebetsong tsa tlhwekiso ya metsi tsa Rand Water, kapa ho hahuwe dibopeho tse ding tsa motheo tsa ho hlwekisa metsi a silafaditsweng. Ker ka hoo ho leng bohlokwa hore batho ba fetole maikutlo a bona mabapi le metsi, ba atshware ka hlompho mme ba a sebedise ka BOHLALE. Ho bohlokwa hore re be BOHLALE KA METSI

Ho ba “Bohlale ka Metsi” ho bolela hore motho o tla:

  • ba le HLOMPHO e felletseng ya metsi le diphedi tsohle;
  • sebedisa metsi ka hloko mme a se ke a wa SENYA;
  • netefatsa hore ha a SILAFATSE dinoka ka dikgwerekgwere tsa mekedikedi le tse tiileng;
  • LEFELA ditshebeletso tsa metsi;
  • NKA MOHATO wa ho rarolla mathata afe kapa afe a metsi;
  • BABALLA metsi, mme ka ho o tla BABALLA tikoloho ya tlhaho.

See also:

What Does it Mean to be Water Wise?
Are you Water Wise? Take our fun Quiz.
Water Situation in South Africa